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    IIT JAM Biotechnology Syllabus

    IIT JAM Biotechnology Syllabus (BT)
    The Biotechnology (BT) Test Paper comprises Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics.

    BIOLOGY (10+2+3 level)

    Cell Biology: Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Membrane structure and function; Organelles and
    internal organization of the eukaryotic cell Protein trafficking in a eukaryotic cell; Cell communication – signalling
    pathways: endocrine and paracrine signalling; Extracellular matrix and apoptosis; Cell cycle – stages of mitosis
    and meiosis, and control of cell division cycle.

    Biochemistry: Structure and function of biological macromolecules; Allostery; Enzymes – basic mechanisms of
    enzyme catalysis, Michaelis-Menten kinetics, enzyme inhibition, vitamins as coenzymes, and regulation;
    Bioenergetics – free-energy change, high-energy compounds, biological oxidation-reduction reactions and
    reduction potential; Metabolism – glycolysis, TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, photosynthesis, nitrogen
    fixation, urea cycle, and regulation of glycolysis and TCA cycle.

    Genetics: Mendel’s laws; Inheritance patterns of polygenic traits; Mendelian inheritance patterns of human
    disorders; Pedigree analysis; Chromosomal basis of inheritance; Genetic recombination; Mapping genes on
    chromosomes based on linkage analysis; Plant breeding.

    Molecular Biology: Landmark experiments that established DNA is the genetic material; DNA replication; Proofreading and repair of DNA; DNA recombination; Transcription; RNA processing; Translation; Regulation of gene
    expression including operons bacteria and differential gene expression in multicellular eukaryotes.

    Evolution: Darwinian view – natural selection, fossil record and descent with modification; Population genetics
    – sources of genetic variation, gene pools and allele frequencies, HardyWeinberg equation, genetic drift, gene
    flow and adaptive evolution; Different types of speciation; Phylogenetic classification; Origin of life – abiotic
    synthesis of biological macromolecules, protocell, dating fossils and origin of multicellularity.

    Microbiology: Isolation; Cultivation; Structural features of viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa; Pathogenic
    microorganisms; Nutrition-based classification of microbes; Microbial metabolism; Growth kinetics; Submerged
    fermentation techniques; Microbial genetics.

    Plant Biology: Types of tissues and organs; Primary and secondary growth; Morphogenesis; Transport in
    vascular plants; Plant nutrition; Development of flowering plants – gametophytic and sporophytic generations,
    different developmental phases, genetic control of flowering, gametogenesis, incompatibility, embryogenesis,
    dormancy, germination and environmental influence; Plant hormones; Photobiology; Plant response to biotic
    and abiotic stresses

    Animal Biology: Digestive, circulatory, respiratory, excretory, nervous, reproductive and endocrine systems;
    Basics of immunology – Innate and adaptive immunity, Immune cells and Immunoglobulins; Animal development
    – Fertilization, embryonic pattern formation, cleavage, gastrulation, cellular differentiation and morphogenesis.

    Ecology: Climate patterns; Terrestrial and aquatic biomes; Environmental constraints on species distribution;
    Factors affecting population density; Interactions among communities; Ecosystems; Ecological remediation.

    Biotechnology: Plant tissue culture; Cloning of animals through somatic cell nuclear transfer; Applications of
    recombinant DNA technology in medicine, agriculture and forensic science.

    Methods in Biology:

    Cell Biology: Microscopy (light microscopy and electron microscopy); Staining proteins with antibodies;
    Visualizations using the GFP reporter.

    Biochemical techniques: UV spectrophotometry; Biomolecular chromatography; cell fractionation by
    centrifugation; Electrophoresis; and Western blotting.

    Molecular biology techniques: DNA cloning – plasmid vectors, and restriction enzymes; Polymerase Chain
    Reaction; Expression of cloned eukaryotic genes in bacteria; Hybridization techniques; DNA sequencing.

    CHEMISTRY (10+2+3 level)

    Structure and properties of Atoms: Bohr’s theory; Periodicity in properties.

    Bonding in molecules: Chemical bonding; Complex formation; Physical and chemical basis of molecular

    Chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, and equilibrium: Chemical equilibrium; Chemical thermodynamics
    (first and second law); and Chemical kinetics (zero and first order reactions).

    Physical and chemical properties of compounds: Chemical catalysis; Acid-base concepts; Concepts of
    pH and buffer; Conjugative effects and resonance; Inductive effects; Electromeric effects; Photochemistry;
    and Electrochemistry.

    Chemistry of organic compounds: Hydrocarbons; Alkyl halides; Alcohols; Aldehydes; Ketones;
    Carboxylic acids; Amines and their derivatives; Aromatic hydrocarbons, halides, nitro and amino
    compounds, phenols, diazonium salts, carboxylic and sulphonic acids; Soaps and detergents;
    Stereochemistry of carbon compounds.

    Instrumental techniques – Spectroscopy: fundamentals of molecular spectroscopy, emission and
    absorption spectroscopy, UV-Vis, IR and 1-D proton NMR spectroscopy, basics of mass spectrometry;
    Basics of calorimetry; Basic concepts of crystallography.

    MATHEMATICS (10+2 level)

    Sets; Relations and Functions; Mathematical Induction; Logarithms; Complex numbers; Linear and
    Quadratic equations; Sequences and Series; Trigonometry; Cartesian System of Rectangular Coordinates;
    Straight lines and Family; Three Dimensional Geometry; Permutations and Combinations; Binomial
    Theorem; Vectors; Matrices and Determinants; Boolean Algebra; Functions; Limits and Continuity;
    Differentiation; Ordinary Differential Equations; Application of Derivatives; Integration as inverse process of
    differentiation; Definite and indefinite integrals; Methods of Integration; Integration by parts.

    Statistics: Measures of dispersion; Mean Deviation for grouped and ungrouped data; Variance and
    Standard Deviation; and Analysis of Frequency Distribution.

    Probability: Random Experiments; Event; Axiomatic Approach to Probability; Conditional Probability and
    its properties; Multiplication Theorem on Probability; Independent Events; Bayes’ Theorem; Random
    Variables and its Probability Distributions; Bernoulli Trails and Binomial Distributions.

    PHYSICS (10+2 level)

    Units and measurements; Motion in one and two dimensions; Laws of motion; Work and kinetic energy;
    Conservation of energy; System of particles and rotational motion; Mechanical properties of solids and fluids;
    Thermal properties of matter; Heat and laws of thermodynamics; Kinetic theory of gases; Electric charge
    and field; Electric potential and capacitance; Current, resistance and simple circuits; Moving charges and
    magnetic field; Magnetism and matter; Electromagnetic induction; Electromagnetic waves; Alternating
    currents; Optics: Geometrical Optics – Reflection by spherical mirrors, Refraction at spherical surfaces and
    lenses, Total internal reflection and Optical instruments; Wave optics – Reflection and refraction of plane
    waves, Interference, Diffraction, Polarization, and Young’s experiment: Dual nature of radiation and matter;
    Atoms, nuclei and nuclear physics; Semiconductor materials, devices and simple circuits.